Estradiol is the predominant, and the most potent, circulating estrogen. Estrogens are present in very minute quantities in saliva, at only 1—5% of the total amount, including protein-bound hormone, found in serum. The very low concentration of salivary estradiol, especially in populations such as postmenopausal women, necessitates extremely sensitive assay methods. ZRT is unique as the only commercial laboratory using extracted saliva testing for estrogens. Extraction removes contaminants that interfere with the assay and concentrates the sample, significantly improving assay sensitivity compared to “direct” assay methods available commercially. In reproductive age women, an excess of estradiol relative to progesterone, known as “estrogen dominance”, can explain many symptoms including endometrial hyperplasia, pre-menstrual syndrome, fibrocystic breasts, and uterine fibroids. Perimenopausal women can also experience symptoms of estrogen dominance, which include weight gain, fibrocystic and tender breasts, uterine fibroids, irritability, and water retention. With the onset of menopause, low estradiol levels lead to hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, sleep disturbances, foggy thinking, and bone loss. In men, too much estradiol, relative to testosterone, leads to feminizing effects such as breast enlargement and can result in a functional testosterone deficiency. The reference range for saliva estradiol is 1.3—3.3 pg/mL in premenopausal women during the luteal phase; 0.5—1.7 pg/mL in postmenopausal women; and 0.5—2.2 pg/mL in men.
Estradiol Saliva Test Specifications